Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both.

1) Type 1 diabetes

The body does not produce insulin.People usually develop type 1 diabetes before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years.

Type 1 diabetes is nowhere near as common as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1.

Type 1 diabetes causes

Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to function normally.This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause, because the body is attacking itself.

the following triggers may be involved:

  • Viral or bacterial infection
  • Chemical toxins within food
  • Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes

    • Excessive thirst
    • Unusually high levels of urination
    • Feeling tired all the time
    • Loss of muscular bulk and unexplained weight loss
    • The main symptoms of type 1 diabetes are often referred to as the 4Ts of type 1 diabetes.

Other symptoms which may accompany

    • Itchiness around the penis or vagina
    • Blurring of vision (caused by dryness of the eyes)
    • Unexpected cramping
    • Skin infections
    • Emergency diabetes symptoms

Seek urgent medical attention if diabetes symptoms combine with any of the following:

    • A serious loss of appetite
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • A temperature
    • Pains in the stomach
    • A fruity, chemical smell on the breath (most often likened to pear drops or nail varnish)

The symptoms above could be a sign of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a dangerous condition that can be life threatening if medical treatment is not provided immediately.

Type 2 diabetes

The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not react to insulin (insulin resistance).
Type 2 diabetes often develops slowly, over a period of years, and the symptoms can therefore also develop gradually.
Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.

Type 2 diabetes causes

family history is likely type 2 diabetes cause. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

  • Obesity
  • Living a sedentary lifestyle
  • Increasing age
  • Bad diet
  • Other type 2 diabetes causes such as pregnancy or illness can be type 2 diabetes risk factors.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

At diagnosis, people who have type 2 diabetes may show little or no symptoms of the condition.

  • Feeling tired during the day, particularly after meals (fatigue)
  • Often feeling hungry, particularly if you feel hungry shortly after eating (polyphagia)
  • Urinating more often than normal, particular needing to do so during the night (polyuria)
  • Feeling abnormally thirsty (polydipsia)
  • Blurred vision
  • Itching of the skin, particularly itchiness around the genitals (genital itchiness
  • Slow healing of cuts or wounds
  • Having regular yeast infections (thrush)
  • Having a skin disorder such as psoriasis or acanthosis nigricans
  • Sudden weight loss or loss of muscle mass

3) Gestational diabetes

This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.

Gestational diabetes causes

there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of developing this condition:

  • Family history of gestational diabetes
  • Overweight or obese
  • Suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Have had a large baby weighing over 9lb
  • Causes of gestational diabetes may also be related to ethnicity – some ethnic groups have a higher risk of gestational diabetes.


Prediabetes means that your blood sugar level is higher than normal but not yet high enough to be type 2 diabetes. Without lifestyle changes, people with prediabetes are very likely to progress to type 2 diabetes. If you have prediabetes, the long-term damage of diabetes — especially to your heart, blood vessels and kidneys — may already be starting.3

Symptoms of Prediabetes

One possible sign that you may be at risk of type 2 diabetes is darkened skin on certain parts of the body. Affected areas can include the neck, armpits, elbows, knees and knuckles.
Classic signs and symptoms that suggest you’ve moved from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes include:

    • Increased thirst
    • Frequent urination
    • Fatigue
    • Blurred vision

Common symptoms of diabetes
The most common signs and symptoms of diabetes are:

  • Frequent urination[water]
  • Excessive thirst and frequent urination are classic symptoms of diabetes.
  • Intense hunger
  • Weight gain
  • Unusual weight loss
  • Increased fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Blurred vision
  • Cuts and bruises don’t heal properly or quickly
  • More skin and/or yeast infections
  • Itchy skin
  • Gums are red and/or swollen – Gums pull away from teeth
  • Frequent gum disease/infection
  • Sexual dysfunction among men
  • Numbness or tingling, especially in your feet and hands

Self Care

    • Healthy Eating
    • Being Active
    • Monitoring
    • Taking Medication
    • Problem Solving
    • Risk Reduction
    • Healthy Coping

10 ways to take an active role in diabetes care and enjoy a healthier future.

  • Make a commitment to managing your diabetes
  • Don’t smoke
  • Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control
  • Schedule regular physicals and eye exams
  • Keep your vaccines up to date
  • Take care of your teeth
  • Pay attention to your feet
  • If you drink alcohol, do so responsibly
  • Take stress seriously
Above all, stay positive. Diabetes care is within your control. If you’re willing to do your part, diabetes won’t stand in the way of an active, healthy life.

How do you live with type 2 diabetes?

  • Follow these tips to manage type 2 diabetes:
  • Include foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet
  • Eat at regular intervals
  • Only eat until you’re full
  • Control your weight and keep your heart healthy
  • Get about half an hour of aerobic activity daily to help keep your heart healthy

Home Remedies

  • Jambul Leaves and berries of jambul plant
  • Bitter Gourd
  • Fenugreek
  • Guavas
  • Mango Leaves
  • Cinnamon
  • Aloe Vera
  • Water
  • Sunlight
  • Indian Gooseberry
  • Fig Leaves
  • Garlic
  • Neem

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